An acoustic system is a set of emitters, their acoustic design (that is, the geometry and materials of the body), the distribution system and signal delivery from the amplifier, and even more important nuances. Today we will talk specifically about the speakers.
The classic moving coil speaker was invented at the very end of the 19th century and received practical use a little less than a hundred years ago. Its distinguishing feature is a diffuser that performs back and forth movements.
A voice coil is fixed on its backside and the whole structure is attached to the basket by means of a suspension and a centering washer. The coil is located inside a permanent magnet and when an alternating current flows through it from an amplifier, it moves with a given amplitude and frequency.
Due to the simplicity and efficiency of the design, dynamic speakers received further development in terms of changing the materials of the diffuser. The diffuser must be light, rigid, inert at the same time, and have a bunch of often conflicting parameters. For a long time, the only option was cellulose, then various plastic, metal, kevlar, carbon fiber, and combined multilayer options began to appear.
Ribbon and electrostatic speakers
Perhaps the most common and competitive types are tape and electrostatic. In the first, the signal from the amplifier is applied to the thinnest film stretched between the bar magnets, and in the second, to the perforated stators, between which, again, a film is stretched, through which a high voltage is passed. Both options have many features and advantages, but a significant drawback is that they do not work well at low frequencies.
Based on the above, we can conclude that the classic speaker still has the maximum distribution, and its design is just one of the factors affecting the quality of the speaker systems in general.